Types of Fibers: Natural vs Synthetic

by | Oct 2, 2023 | News

If you ask a crafter which is better—natural or synthetic fibers—you’re not likely to get a straight answer. More often than not, you’ll get a response like: “It depends on what you’re trying to create.”

When considering natural fibers vs. synthetic fibers, recognize that each category has benefits. However, it’s important to note that synthetic fibers are often engineered to have characteristics similar to their natural counterparts. Why? Natural fibers have given humans the ability to stay warm, dry, and comfortable for centuries.

Let’s explore the key differences between these two fiber types and dive into their respective properties and benefits.

Natural vs Synthetic Fibers

Natural fibers come from plant or animal sources. They offer several advantages, including breathability, biodegradability, and a comfortable feel against the skin. However, they can be susceptible to wear and tear, may shrink, and can be somewhat less durable than their synthetic counterparts.

On the other hand, synthetic fibers are man-made and engineered using various chemical compounds. While synthetic fibers are not biodegradable and may contribute to microplastic pollution, they are versatile, affordable, and easily tailored to specific applications.

Natural Fibers

Natural fibers have been used for centuries because they offer marvelous benefits—warmth, breathability, softness, and even moisture control. A few of the most well-known and frequently used nature fibers include:

  • Cotton: Known for its softness, breathability, and absorbency, cotton is widely used in clothing, bedding, and various textiles.
  • Wool: Obtained from sheep, wool is prized for its warmth and insulation properties. It is often used in sweaters, suits, and winter wear.
  • Silk: Produced by silkworms, silk is a luxurious and lustrous fiber, commonly used in high-end clothing, lingerie, and home furnishings.
  • Linen: Derived from the flax plant and known for its lightweight, breathable, and moisture-wicking properties. It is a popular choice for summer clothing and tablecloths.
  • Hemp: An eco-friendly natural fiber known for its durability and strength. It is used in various applications, including clothing, bags, and rope.

Synthetic Fibers

Synthetic fibers are man-made and engineered to have specific properties. Here are some common synthetic fibers:

  • Polyester: A versatile synthetic fiber known for its durability, wrinkle resistance, and quick-drying properties. It is frequently used in sportswear, outerwear, and home textiles.
  • Nylon: Strong and lightweight, nylon synthetic fiber offers excellent elasticity. It is commonly used in hosiery, swimwear, and industrial applications.
  • Acrylic: Designed to mimic the warmth and softness of wool, acrylic fibers are often used as a cheaper alternative to wool in blankets, sweaters, and scarves.
  • Rayon: A semi-synthetic fiber derived from wood pulp. It has a silky texture and is used in a wide range of applications, from clothing to home furnishings.
  • Spandex: Also known as elastane, spandex is a highly elastic synthetic fiber often used in stretchy garments like swimwear, leggings, and athletic wear.

Properties Associated with Natural & Synthetic Fibers

Natural and synthetic fibers have various performance properties that make them ideal for certain uses. For instance, if you’re looking for a highly elastic, stretchy fiber, a synthetic fiber like nylon may be useful. Whereas if you’re looking for warm, moisture-wicking characteristics, a natural fiber like wool may be the way to go.

Let’s explore some of the performance characteristics offered by natural and synthetic fibers.

Natural Fibers

  • Biodegradable: Natural fibers are environmentally friendly materials and are biodegradable, meaning they break down naturally over time without causing harm to the environment.
  • Breathable & Comfortable: Natural fibers, such as cotton and linen, are known for their breathability and moisture-wicking properties, making them ideal for clothing in hot and humid climates.
  • Insulation: Natural fibers like wool are highly insulating and help regulate body temperature. It retains warmth even when wet, making it suitable for cold-weather clothing and blankets.
  • Hypoallergenic: Natural fibers like silk and bamboo, have hypoallergenic properties, making them less likely to cause skin irritations or allergies compared with synthetic materials.


  • Durability: Synthetic fibers are known for strength, making them resistant to wear and tear. They maintain their integrity even after repeated use and exposure to various environmental conditions.
  • Versatility: Synthetic fibers are engineered to exhibit a wide range of properties, including different levels of elasticity, flexibility, and resistance to specific factors like heat or cold.
  • Low Absorbency: Unlike natural fibers like cotton or wool, synthetic fibers have low absorbency, meaning they do not readily absorb moisture. This property makes them less prone to mold, mildew, and bacterial growth.
  • Colorfastness: Synthetic fibers often have excellent colorfastness, retaining vibrancy and resisting fading when exposed to sunlight, washing, or chemical treatments. This property makes synthetic fabrics useful when long-lasting, vibrant colors are desired.

Benefits of Natural Fiber Types

Natural fibers offer a range of benefits that make them a popular choice for artists and crafters:

  • Environmentally Friendly: A sustainable choice for eco-conscious consumers.
  • Comfortable: Soft and breathable, providing comfort even in hot weather.
  • Hypoallergenic: Less likely to cause skin allergies or irritations, making them suitable for sensitive skin.
  • Timeless Aesthetic: Materials like silk and wool have an appeal that never goes out of style.
  • Sustainability: Hemp, in particular, is gaining popularity due to its minimal environmental impact.

Read more: Benefits of Using Natural Fibers

Natural Yarn Fibers From Meridian Mill House

Natural and synthetic fibers offer a variety of advantages, and the choice between the two often depends on the specific requirements of the end product—and the values and preferences of the consumer. Ultimately, understanding the properties and benefits of each fiber type can help you make informed purchasing decisions.

Explore our full line of natural fiber yarns online or reach out to let us know what else you’d like to see in our shop.

Hannah Everhart


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